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Japan, the world’s third-largest economy, has laws above all else, while Mongolia …

Japan, the world’s third-largest economy, has laws above all else, while Mongolia …

Japan’s post-World War II development path: After World War II, Japan’s economy weakened, its population became poorer, and it starved to death. As a result of the war, 44 percent of Japan’s settlements were destroyed, 30 percent of the population lost their homes, and Nagasaki and Hiroshima were completely devastated (the damage to other countries was even greater). During this time, the Japanese government pursued a variety of policies in an effort to take decisive action.

In particular, the policy of rebuilding Japan was closely linked to the United States. Huge amounts of loans and grants from major US companies and the government came to finance the Japanese war-torn and emerging industries (the Marshall Plan).

At that time, Japan did not have the resources to compete in the world market, so it systematically developed a national capitalism based on the Social Market Economy, rather than a free market economy based on the private sector.

Based on this, public corporations such as Toyota, Sony, and Honda have been established, and the future development program for the health, employment, and education of the entire population of Japan has been successfully launched. He was well aware that the income from economic growth should be used only for the good of the nation, and he was able to protect it from corruption and self-interest.

The Korean Peninsula War of 1950–1953 caused a major explosion in the Japanese economy. The United States invested heavily in the war, using Japanese ports and industry as its mainstay. After World War II, the Japanese began rebuilding and modernizing their industrial complexes. In the field of defense, Washington has defended Japan, and Japan has spent its military spending on construction and rapid economic development. In 1951, just six years after the war, Japan’s gross domestic product (GDP) reached pre-war levels and recovered in a very short time.

Japan’s economic development after World War II is divided into three stages. The first phase focused on the development of heavy production systems and basic infrastructure. These included the development of heavy industries such as steel, ships, and lumber, as well as inter-city, inter-provincial roads, railways, and air transport infrastructure. In the second phase, from 1960 to 1970, the production of services, automobiles and electrical appliances intensified. Toyota, Honda and Toshiba have created powerful corporations that have sprung up in the global market. The third stage is based on the development of knowledge, the development of the knowledge economy, innovation, information technology, technological development and aerospace.

THE PATH OF DEVELOPMENT SINCE 1990

Kawakatsu Heita, an Oxford graduate and economist who currently serves as governor of Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan, wrote in his 1990s book, “Being Rich means High Morality” (川 勝 平 太: 富 国有 徳) evaluates the economic development of the country and theorizes what path to take in the future.

He asked what the nature of the wealth that Japan has created so far is.

The main goal of Japan’s post-World War II economic policy was to rebuild the domestic market affected by the First World War and address the issue of poverty. Its implementation can be measured by output growth and GDP growth. After that, the economic policy was aimed at overtaking the developed countries economically. Despite some progress, economic growth soon slowed sharply, lasting more than a decade.

It seems that the limits of economic policy to combat poverty have been reached.

In order to revive the economy and increase its international competitiveness, the author emphasizes the need to break away from the philosophy of backward development to fight and eradicate poverty, and to redefine the concept of wealth. Mount Fuji, the symbol of Japan and its people, is written in kanji ба, the first kanji is for wealth and prosperity, and the second kanji is for a Japanese person with high morals (citizens, government officials, private sector, etc.). ). In the future, Japan’s path of development will be based on material wealth on one side and values ​​and ethics on the other, and for this, it is necessary to initiate political, business and social reforms based on ethical principles. , a high level of ethics. ”

ETHICAL LAW OF JAPANESE GOVERNMENT OFFICIALS

In 1999, just three years after Kawakatsu Heita published his book, Japan passed the National Public Service Ethics Act (not just a charter).

The National Public Service Ethics Board, under the auspices of the emperor, is composed of members of the Civil Service Personnel Committee and the public to assess the full implementation of the law.

The Ethics Committee provides training, seminars, and manuals to prevent civil servants from violating the Code of Ethics, and conducts regular evaluations and monitoring of the Code of Conduct for Civil Servants at all levels. It also regularly receives inquiries and complaints from the public. Members of the Ethics Committee are elected every four years and are required to pass a multi-stage poll.

We are already familiar with the Japanese political culture of bowing to the press, apologizing to the people, and announcing one’s resignation. However, this culture is a reflection of the recent culture that emerged in the mid-1990s and the strong ethics of public servants and the good work of the ethics committee.

The law defines a civil servant as the prime minister, members of his cabinet, all members of parliament, and all levels of government-affiliated entities, agencies, and executives, all of whom must be equally subject to the Civil Service Law and the Civil Service Ethics Law. . The law also specifies penalties for violating the code of ethics.

The main purpose of the law is not to monitor the every step of a civil servant, but to guide the civil servant to the best way to work for the people and the country.

Even in tsarist Japan, where ethics, justice, and fidelity are enshrined in law at the state level, why do the officials of a democratic Mongolia want to act as lords and kings? Japan, the world’s third-largest economy, says the law is above all and applies equally to everyone, while who is above the law in a democratic Mongolia?

ETHICS ARE IMMUNE

Monarchy = Rule by One for the Rest decayed, Tyranny = Rule for One, Aristocracy = Rule by the Best, Oligarchy, Rule for the Oligarchy Few) argues that the only guardian to prevent the Mob Rule = Everyone for Themselves from becoming a selfish, chaotic, arbitrary government is the ethics system. Aristotle wrote in his book Politics.

Even the human body has a mechanism to protect itself from foreign infections. The state is no different. Today, even businesses that do not have a code of ethics or an ethics committee have disappeared. As long as a person acts, there must be ethics. Ethics is a set of principles designed to encourage people to work out the best they can.

So, to develop like Japan means 富 国有 徳 論 or “to be rich is to have a high level of morality and ethics. As an ordinary citizen, I understand that the country’s leaders, role models (even the private sector), black legislators, and policymakers begin by demanding, legislating, and enforcing high moral, ethical standards, requirements, and principles.

B. Munkhbat